Anderson, T.D, J.N. DuPont, M.J. Perricone and A.R. Marder, “Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution of Mo-Bearing Stainless Steels”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 38A(1), pp. 86-99, 2007. DOI: 10.1007/s11661-007-9211-9
The good corrosion resistance of superaustenitic stainless steel (SASS) alloys has been shown to be a direct consequence of high concentrations of Mo, which can have a significant effect on the microstructural development of welds in these alloys. In this research, the microstructural development of welds in the Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo system was analyzed over a wide variety of Cr/Ni ratios and Mo contents. The system was first simulated by construction of multicomponent phase diagrams using the CALPHAD technique. Data from vertical sections of these diagrams are presented over a wide compositional range to produce diagrams that can be used as a guide to understand the influence of composition on microstructural development. A large number of experimental alloys were then prepared via arc-button melting for comparison with the diagrams. Each alloy was characterized using various microscopy techniques. The expected δ-ferrite and γ-austenite phases were accompanied by martensite at low Cr/Ni ratios and by σ phase at high Mo contents. A total of 20 possible phase transformation sequences are proposed, resulting in various amounts and morphologies of the γ, δ, σ, and martensite phases. The results were used to construct a map of expected phase transformation sequence and resultant microstructure as a function of composition. The results of this work provide a working guideline for future base metal and filler metal development of this class of materials.