Lentz, H.P., M.S. Potter and G.S. Casuccio, Detection Measurement and Characterization of Inclusions Using Automated SEM Techniques, AISTech Proceedings, pp. 1-13, 2017.
Scientists and engineers have long studied the microscopic properties of steel in order to predict macroscopic properties of both the steel and the steel-making process. As early as the 1920s, steel cleanliness was evaluated using light-optical microscopes with a procedure that later became well known as the JK (Jernkontoret) rating system. With the advent of Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs) and X-ray analysis systems, steel could be analyzed at higher magnifications and the morphology and composition of structures could be more easily and accurately quantified. Figure 1(a) shows Dr. Robert Fisher operating a system combining “a modified [transmission] electron microscope with an X-ray analyzer to establish the composition of microscopic particles in steel” at U. S. Steel’s Research Center in 1956.
To read the whole article, please click here.